Basic SMF commands
SMF consists of three command line utilities:
- svcs: allows you to examine the state of your services and determine what went wrong.
- svcadm: enable, disable, and restart a service.
- svccfg: load manifest files (XML) that maintain configurations for each service.
svcs command displays information about the state of your services. This typically means whether or not they are running and any problems encountered when attempting to start them. In general, services will fall into three different states:
- online: the service is enabled and functioning normally
- offline: the service is stopped and disabled
- maintenance: the service has encountered a problem and is on hold until the problem is addressed by an administrator.
svcs command with the
-a argument displays a list of all online and offline services. By default
svcs prints out:
- status: the current state of the service.
- stime: when the service entered the current state.
- FMRI: the name of the service.
Each service is identified by a Fault Management Resource Identifier (FMRI). For example, the FMRI
The above FMRI breaks down in the following way:
||The service type|
||The service name|
||The service instance|
For example, this output shows that Apache was disabled on May 31st:
# svcs svc:/network/http:cswapache2 STATE STIME FMRI disabled May_31 svc:/network/http:cswapache2
An easy way of uncovering the FMRI for a service is by using
grep in combination with
svcs -a. For example, using grep in the following exposes the FMRI of the MySQL service, which is
# svcs -a | grep -i mysql enabled May_31 svc:/network/cswmysql5:default
You can abbreviate an FMRI by specifying the instance name or the trailing portion of the service name. For example, valid abbreviations for
svcadm command is used to enable, disable, restart, or refresh services. For example, this command enables the MySQL service.
# svcadm enable cswmysql5
svcs, you can verify that the service is enabled:
# svcs cswmysql5 STATE STIME FMRI online 15:20:39 svc:/network/cswmysql5:default
disable to stop services. For example, this stops the MySQL service:
# svcadm disable cswmysql5
restart to refresh a service. For example, after making a configuration change, you can refresh an enabled service like this:
# svcadm restart cswmysql5
Some daemons do not respond to the
restart command. If that is the case, you will need to disable and re-enable the service.
If a service enters maintenance mode or becomes disabled, you will need to perform some maintenance before SMF can restart the service. This means resolving any conflicts that prevent the service from running then using
svcadm clear to clear the service state. When using
svcadm clear, you need to specify the service FMRI.
This command does nothing to fix a service, it just signals that the service is ready to resume. Before you can clear a service state, you need to ensure that you resolve the conflict that caused the service to go into maintenance mode. For example, if you configure Postgres to use an IP port that is already in use by another service, the Postgres service will terminate abnormally and go into maintenance mode. In this case, you would need to resolve the IP conflict by modifying the Postgres configuration to use another IP or terminating the conflicting service. You would then clear the state after resolving the conflict.
Once the state is cleared, the service can resume. Each service has an assigned service restarter agent that is responsible for carrying out actions against it. The default service restarter is
- If a service instance is in maintenance mode, this command informs the restarter agent that the service was repaired.
- If a service instance is disabled, this command requests that the restarter agent transition the service to the online state.
For example, the following will clear the state of the Apache service and SMF will automatically restart the service once cleared:
# svcadm clear svc:/network/http:cswapache2
SMF will place a service in maintenance mode when the service encounters something that causes it to crash. This usually indicates an error with the service but can also occur if your SmartMachine is running out of resources (RAM or disk space).
To verify if a service is in maintenance mode run this command:
# svcs -a
This will show all running and disabled services. If a service is in maintenance mode, you will see something similar to this:
maintenence 18:50:25 svc:/network/webmin:webmin
Review the log to root-cause why the service was in maintenance mode.
# more $(svcs -L service_name)
Take the service out of maintenance mode:
# svcadm clear service_name
To verify if a service is disabled:
# svcs -a
If the service is disabled, you will see something similar to this:
disabled 18:51:10 svc:/network/webmin:webmin
Enable the service:
# svcadm enable service_name
Verify the service is enabled:
# svcs service_name
If successful, you should see something similar to this:
online 18:50:25 svc:/network/webmin:webmin
The term "online" is the service state and indicates that the service is running.
SMF maintains a contract with every running service it manages. The contract keeps track of what processes are running for any given service. Using the
-p option, you can determine all the processes that belong to a service. In the following example, the MySQL daemon is process number 29004.
# svcs -p network/cswmysql5 STATE STIME FMRI online 16:55:27 svc:/network/cswmysql5:default 16:55:27 28938 mysqld_safe 16:55:27 29004 mysqld
The following example demonstrates how SMF restarts a service when it stops unexpectedly:
# kill -9 29004 # svcs -p network/cswmysql5 STATE STIME FMRI online* 17:00:01 svc:/network/cswmysql5:default 16:55:27 28938 mysqld_safe 17:00:01 29228 mysqld # mysql -u mysql ... mysql> \q Bye
Even though the MySQL daemon was unexpectedly terminated, it was automatically restarted by SMF. Notice that the STIME shows that the MySQL service is back online. The inclusion of an asterisk with the "online" state indicates that the service is currently in transition. However, the MySQL service is already back online by the time the next command is run.
SMF does not restart the service in brain-dead mode like a legacy
inittab; You can configure a threshold for service restarts. For example, numerous restarts of a service in a 60 second time frame might indicate a severe issue in your environment. You can configure a restart threshold in SMF for that service. At that point, SMF will put the service in "maintenance" mode, and the service will remain in that state until you clear it with
svccfg command allows you to import, export, and modify service configurations. You specify entities to manipulate by using the
-s option with an FMRI. The following example will set an environment variable for the specified FMRI with the value you specify.
# svccfg -s FMRI setenv ENV_VARIABLE value
You can invoke
svccfg directly with individual subcommands or by specifying a script file.
If you make any changes to a service using this command, you need to restart the service for the changes to take effect.
If you want to enable users without root access to manage SMF, you can modify a user profile as follows:
- Add this line replacing "myuser" with the login you want to enable:
After this change, the specified user is able to manage SMF (import, stop, start) without access to root. This minimizes the need for unnecessarily sharing root access among users.